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Burdock Group takes pride in the professional and academic achievements of its staff. As part of their professional development, our staff regularly publish food safety and scientific peer-reviewed articles in scientific and trade journals

The following scientific peer-reviewed articles about food safety and toxicology have been written by current and former Burdock Group team members. Please contact us to request a copy of any of the publications referenced below, or for more information regarding our services.

Standards of Proof and how GRAS can be applied
Is it a Food, Drug or Dietary Supplement

Burdock Group published Fenaroli’s Handbook of Flavor Ingredients – Sixth Edition.

Dr. Burdock co-authors the chapter on Food Toxicology in the 8th edition of Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons


This textbook is the main resource used in classrooms worldwide to teach the toxicology and safety of food.

Fenaroli's Handbook of Flavor Ingredients
FDA submissions


Repeat-Dose Animal Toxicity Studies and Genotoxicity Study with Deactivated Alkaline Serine Protease (DASP), a Protein Low in Phenylalanine (PHE). Burdock GA, Cowley AB and Li Q. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 145, 2020 October 31; doi: 0.1016/j.fct.2020.111839


Multi-Level Safety Studies of Anti Fel d 1 IgY Ingredient in Cat Food. Matulka RA, Thompson L and Corley D. Front. Vet. Sci. 6:477. 2020 January 08; doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00477


The explosion in the use of natural substances and the need for new comprehensive risk assessments. Brickel JA, Matulka RA, Burdock GA. Current Opinion in Food Science. Volume 24, December 2018, Pages 56-61. 2018 November 22;


KALGAE™ (Klebsormidium flaccidum var. ZIVO) dried algal biomass – 90-day dietary toxicity study and genotoxicity studies. Brickel JA, Matulka RA,Steffek AE. Toxicology Reports. Volume 5, September 2018, Pages 959-969. 2018 September 20;


Effects of the Consumption of Macleaya cordata Extract Preparation by Sows. Matulka RA, Dohms J. Open Journal of Animal Sciences. Volume 8 No. 3, July 2018, Pages 294-302. 2018 January 24; DOI:10.4236/ojas.2018.83022.


Tolerance Study for Standardized Macleaya cordata Extract Added to Chicken Layer Diet. Matulka RA, von Alvensleben S, Morlacchini M, Fusconi G. Open Journal of Animal Sciences. Volume 8 No. 1, January 2018, Pages 104-117. 2018 January 24; DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2018.81008


Our unrequited love for natural ingredients. Burdock GA, Wang W. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 107 Part A, September 2017, Pages 37-46. 2017 June 6;


In vitro and in vivo safety evaluation of Nephure™. Cowley H, Yan Q,  Koetzner L, Dolan L, Nordwald E, Cowley AB. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Volume 86, June 2017, Pages 241-252. 2017 March 18;


Safety evaluation of a milk-based protein powder produced by a novel manufacturing technique. LeBeau A, Matulka R, Comstock B. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 103 Part A, May 2017, Pages 86-101. 2017 August 18; DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2017.08.018


Safety Evaluation of a Standardized Macleaya cordata Extract in a Ninety Day Feeding Study in Weaned Piglets. Zhao L, von Alvensleben S, Fusconi G, Morlacchini M. Open Journal of Animal Sciences. Volume 7 No. 2, 2017, Pages 213-231. 2017 April 30 2017; DOI:10.4236/ojas.2017.72017


Residue Study for a Standardized Macleaya cordata Extract in Growing-Finishing Swine. Zhao L, Matulka RA, von Alvensleben S, Morlacchini M. Open Journal of Animal Sciences. Volume 7 No. 2, 2017, Pages 93-104. 2017 April 10 2017; DOI:10.4236/ojas.2017.72008


Performance, Safety and Tissue Residue Study for Coated Sodium Butyrate Added to Broiler Feed. Dolan LC, Moreland S, Morlacchini M, Spagnoli M and Fusconi G. International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 15 No. 5, Pages 161-174. 2016; DOI:10.3923/ijps.2016.161.174


Safety studies conducted on pecan shell fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells. Dolan LC, Matulka RA, Worn J, Nizio, J. Toxicology Reports. Volume 3, 2016, Pages 87-97. 2015 November 11; DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.11.011


Safety assessment of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata. Matulka RA, Kagan ML. Toxicology Papers. Volume 2, 2015, Pages 617–623. 2015 March 8; DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.03.008


Hydroxytyrosol: Lack of Clastogenicity in Bone Marrow Chromosome Aberration in Rats. Dolan LC, Hofman-Huther H, Amann N. BioMed Central 7:923. 2014 Dec 16. DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-923.


Safety evaluation of Whole Algalin Protein (WAP) from Chlorella protothecoides. Szabo NJ, Matulka RA, Chan T. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013 Jun 1;59C:34-45. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.05.035.


US regulations on dietary supplements: How are they regulated? Ray Matulka, Ph.D. (2013) Agro Food IndustryVol. 24(4) 18-20.


Maintaining freshness in the global food market. Ray A. Matulka  (2012) Agro Food Industry Vol. 23(3), 2.


Claims: the United States and European perspective.Laurie C. Dolan, Violaine Chaumont (2011) Agro Food Industry Vol. 2(4), 5-7.


Safety evaluation of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240. Nancy J. Szabo, Laurie C. Dolan, George A. Burdock, Takashi Shibano, Shin-ichi Sato, Hiroshi Suzuki, Tohru Uesugi, Satoko Yamahira, Masamichi Toba, Hirofumi Ueno. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49 (2011) 251–258.


Evidence-Based Review on the Effect of Normal Dietary Consumption of Fructose on Blood Lipids and Body Weight of Overweight and Obese Individuals. Laurie C. Dolan; Susan M. Potter; George A. Burdock. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50: 10, 889 — 918.


Increased plasma PYY levels following supplementation with the functional fiber PolyGlycopleX in healthy adults. Reimer, RA, Pelletier, X, Carabin, IG, Lyon, M, et al (2010).  European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication 28 July 2010; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.141


Defining nutrients: Are Some Antioxidants Left on the Sidelines? R.A. Matulka (2010) Agro Food Industry Vol. 21, n. 6:2-3.

To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2010.512990



Naturally Occurring Food Toxins Laurie C. Dolan , Ray A. Matulka and George A. Burdock. Toxins 2010, 2(9), 2289-2332; doi:10.3390/toxins2092289.


Safety studies conducted on a proprietary high-purity aloe vera inner leaf fillet preparation, Qmatrix® L.D. Williams, G.A. Burdock, E. Shin, S. Kim, T.H. Jo, K.N. Jones, R. Matulka (2010). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Volume 57, Issue 1, June 2010, Pages 90-98.


Safety and Efficacy of Hydroxycitric Acid Derived from Garcinia cambogia – A Literature Review. S. J. Stohs, H.G. Preuss, S.E. Ohia,G.R. Kaats, C.L. Keen, L.D. Williams, and G.A. Burdock. HerbalGram Spring 2010;85.


Safety Studies Conducted on a Proprietary High-Purity Aloe Vera Inner Leaf Fillet Preparation, Qmatrix®. L.D. Williams, G.A. Burdock, E. Shin, S. Kimb, T.H. Joc, K.N. Jones, and R.A. Matulka (2010). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (online ahead of print).


Evidence that iodine supplementation should be considered during pregnancy. L.C. Dolan and G.A. Burdock (2009) Agro Food Industry: Focus on infant/children nutrition, Vol.20, n.6:3-5


The best blend for greatest profits combines innovation and safety. R.A. Matulka and R.A. McNeil (2009) Agro Food Industry Vol. 20, n.6:12-13


A formula for preserving brand integrity during flavour innovation. R.A. Matulka and G.A. Burdock (2009) Agro Food Industry 20:70-72.


Literature review on the safety of Toyocerin, a non-toxigenic and non-pathogenic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi preparation. L.D. Williams, G.A. Burdock, Guillermo Jiménez b, Marisol Castillo (2009) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 55 (2009) 236–246.


Safety studies conducted on high-purity trans-resveratrol in experimental animals. L.D. Williams and G .A. Burdock (2009) Food and Chemical Toxicology 47:170–2182


No evidence demonstrating hepatotoxicity associated with hydroxycitric acid. S.J. Stohs, H.G. Preuss, S.E. Ohia, G.R. Kaats, C.L. Keen, L.D. Williams and G.A. Burdock (2009) World Journal of Gastroenterology 15:32. pp. 4087-4089


Genotoxicity studies on a high-purity rebaudioside A preparation. L.D. Williams and G.A. Burdock (2009) Food and Chemical Toxicology 47:1831-1836

The safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®) as shown in a 90-day rodent feeding study. R.A. Matulka, M. Lyon, S. Wood, P. A. Marone, D.J. Merkel and G.A. Burdock, (2009) Nutrition Journal 8:1


Safety assessment of kola nut extract as a food ingredient. G.A. Burdock, I.G. Carabin and Christine M. Crincoli, (2009) Food and Chemical Toxicology


Supplementation of a functional fiber (Polyglycoplex®) to the diet is well tolerated by healthy subjects in a clinical trial. I.G. Carabin, M.R. Lyon, S. Wood, X. Pelletier, Y. Donazzolo and G.A. Burdock, (2009) Nutrition Journal 8:9. pp. 1-11


Acute and subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of SE5-OH, an equol-rich product produced by Lactococcus garvieae. S. Yee, G.A. Burdock, Y. Kurata, Y. Enomoto, K. Narumi, S. Hamada, T. Itoh, Y. Shimomura and T. Ueno, (2008) Food and Chemical Toxicology 46:2713–2720 (Available online ahead of press)


Developmental and reproductive effects of an equol-rich product, SE5-OH. R.A. Matulka, I. Matsuura, T. Uesugi, T. Ueno and G.A. Burdock, (2008) Journal of Toxicology


Lack of toxicity by medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in canines during a 90-day feeding study. R.A. Matulka, L.J. Thompson and G.A. Burdock, (2008) Food and Chemical Toxicology 47:35–39


Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient. G.A. Burdock and I.G. Carabin, (2008) Food and Chemical Toxicology 47:22–34


In vitro and in vivo safety studies of a proprietary whey growth factor extract. A.R. Dyer, G.A. Burdock, I.G. Carabin, M.C. Haas, J. Boyce, R. Alsaker and L C. Read (2008) Food and Chemical Toxicology 46:1659–1665 (Available online)


Safety assessment of 2-ethyl-3, (5 or 6)-dimethylpyrazine as a food ingredient. G.A. Burdock and I.G. Carabin (2008) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology


Safety assessment of ylang-ylang oil as a food ingredient. G.A. Burdock and I.G. Carabin (2008) Food and Chemical Toxicology 46:433-445


Safety assessment of sandalwood oil (Santalum album L.).
G.A. Burdock and I.G. Carabin (2008) Food and Chemical Toxicology 46:421-432

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